Union Public Service Commission Civil Services Coaching

It is the premier recruiting agency for the Government of India. UPSC is responsible for recruiting candidates for the All India Services, Central Services and Cadres, as well as the Armed Forces of the Union of India.
Some of the services for which the UPSC recruits candidates are the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, Indian Foreign Service, Indian Revenue Service, etc
UPSC conducts a National Level Exam for 24 services under the Central & State Government of India.

(i) Indian Administrative Service
(ii) Indian Foreign Service
(iii) Indian Police Service
(iv) Indian P & T Accounts & Finance Service, Group ‘A’
(v) Indian Audit and Accounts Service, Group ‘A’
(vi) Indian Revenue Service (Customs and Central Excise), Group ‘A’
(vii) Indian Defence Accounts Service, Group ‘A’
(viii) Indian Revenue Service (I.T.), Group ‘A’
(ix) Indian Ordnance Factories Service, Group ‘A’ (Assistant Works Manager,Administration)
(x) Indian Postal Service, Group ‘A’
(xi) Indian Civil Accounts Service, Group ‘A’
(xii) Indian Railway Traffic Service, Group ‘A’
(xiii) Indian Railway Accounts Service, Group 'A'
(xiv) Indian Railway Personnel Service, Group ‘A’
(xv) Post of Assistant Security Commissioner in Railway Protection Force, Grp‘A’
(xvi) Indian Defence Estates Service, Group ‘A’
(xvii) Indian Information Service (Junior Grade), Group ‘A’
(xviii) Indian Trade Service, Group 'A' (Gr. III)
(xix) Indian Corporate Law Service, Group "A"
(xx) Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service, Group ‘B’ (Section Officer’s Grade)
(xxi) Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Civil Service, Group 'B'
(xxii) Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Police Service, Group 'B'
(xxiii) Pondicherry Civil Service, Group 'B'
(xxiv) Pondicherry Police Service, Group 'B

Latest Updates and Notification


Due to the prevailing conditions caused by the novel corona virus (covid-19), the union public service commission has deferred the civil services (preliminary) examination, 2021, which was scheduled to be held on 27th june, 2021. now, this examination will be held on 10th october, 2021.”
Interviews of the Civil Services Examination, 2020 (scheduled from 26.04.2021 to 18.06.2021) are postponed till further orders. Fresh dates will be informed in due course.
Candidates are advised to keep a check on the official website of the Commission for any related update

Revised Dates of UPSC CSE  Examination 2020-2021

UPSC CSE Prelims 2021

Date: – 27 June 2021

Revised Date;–  10 October 2021

UPSC CSE Interview 2020

Date: – 26-04-2021 To 18.06.2021

Revised Date :– Fresh UPSC Interview Schedule 2020 to be released in due time.

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Live Online Classes:

7 days a week by HO and Branch faculty

Limited Batch:

Limited batch size with personalised attention


Interview Preparation

12 Monthly Exams:

Online + Offline

Doubt-Clearing and Discussion Session:

Once Month

Study Material:

All Study material and handouts in PDF format

Weekly Test:

Weekly M100 Test + Descriptive Test (Online)


Optional subject as add-on

Monthly Performance Discusion:

One-on-One online apointment with the teacher, once a month

Recorded Video Lectures:

100+ hours of introductory and advanced levels

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Physical Classes:

2-3 days a week by HO and Branch faculty


Optional Included

Study Material:

Printed Study material and handouts

12 Monthly Exams and 2 Semester Exam per year:


Weekly Test:

Weekly M100 Test(Classroom) + Descriptive Test (Online)

Monthly Performance Discussion:

One-on-One appointment with the teacher as required by students


Interview Preparation

Doubt-Clearing and Discussion Session:

As required by students

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Age Eligibility

(1) A candidate must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 32 years on the 1st of August, 2021 i.e., the candidate must have been born not earlier than 2nd August, 1989 and not later than 1st August, 2000.

(2) The upper age-limit prescribed above will be relaxable:

(a) up to a maximum of five years if a candidate belongs to a Scheduled Caste or a
Scheduled Tribe;

 (b) up to a maximum of three years in the case of candidates belonging to Other Backward Classes who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable to such candidates;

(c) up to a maximum of three years in the case of Defence Services Personnel, disabled in operations during hostilities with any foreign country or in a disturbed area and  released as a consequence thereof;

(d) up to a maximum of five years in the case of ex-servicemen including Commissioned Officers and Emergency Commissioned Officers (ECOs)/ Short Service Commissioned.

Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.

Officers (SSCOs) who have rendered at least five years Military Service as on 1st August, 2021 and have been released:

Civil Services Age limit relaxations, as discussed below, will apply).


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Educational Qualification

The various academic requirements as per the IAS Eligibility Criteria are given below:
● Minimum qualification for UPSC exam: The candidate must hold a degree from Government
recognised Universities or possess an equivalent qualification.
● Candidates who are in their final year or awaiting results are also eligible to appear for UPSC
preliminary Examination. All such candidates who are likely to appear for IAS exams must
produce proof of having passed the said examination along with the application for the main IAS
● Candidates having professional and technical qualifications recognised by the Government as
equivalent to professional and technical degrees.
● Medical students who have passed the final year of MBBS, but are yet to complete their
internship also have eligibility for IAS. Although, along with the Main Examination application, a
certificate of course completion (including internship) from the concerned authority of the
University/Institution has to be submitted.
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UPSC releases the CSE cut off each year after the examination. The UPSC CSE cutoff is determined based on various parameters such as the difficulty level of the exam, the average performance by the candidates, the number of vacancies, etc. The UPSC CSE cut-off for 2020 is yet to be released. UPSC CSE cut off category wise 2019 is stated below.

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UPSC CSE Exam Stages/Process

UPSC has notified the UPSC CSE selection process of 2021 for the civil services examination. It is a 3-stage exam, which is mentioned below:

  • UPSC CSE Prelims Exam
  • UPSC CSE Mains Exam
  • UPSC CSE Personality Test


UPSC CSE Prelims 2021 exam is a screening test to shortlist candidates for the UPSC CSE Mains Exam. Candidates who qualify the UPSC Mains exam are eligible for the interview. The Mains and Interview scores are counted for the final merit list.

The complete UPSC CSE exam pattern 2021 is mentioned below-

The first stage of the exam i.e., the Civil Services Preliminary Exam is only a screening test and is conducted to shortlist candidates for the Main Examination. Marks secured in Preliminary Exam are not taken into account while preparing the final merit.

Preliminary Exam consists of two papers of objective type carrying a maximum of 400 marks.

No. of Papers 2 compulsory papers
Type of Questions Objective (MCQ) type
Total Maximum Marks 400 (200 each paper)
Duration of Exam 2 hrs. each (20 minutes per hour extra time for blind

candidates & candidate with Locomotor Disability &

Cerebral Palsy [minimum 40% impairment])

Negative Marking 1/3rd of the marks assigned to a question
Medium of Exam Bilingual (Hindi & English)


  1. General Studies Paper-I Syllabus

It has 100 questions broadly covering the following topics carrying a maximum of 200 marks to be solved in 2 hours. This score of this paper determines the cut off marks for the Prelims.

  • Current events of National & International importance.
  • History of India & Indian National Movement.
  • Indian & World Geography – Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India & the World.
  • Indian Polity & Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic & Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity & climate change – that do not require subject specialization.
  • General Science.
UPSC Prelims 2020 GS Paper 1 Subject-Wise Analysis
Subject Number of questions
History 18
Economy 14
Polity 16
Environment & Ecology 17
Geography 10
Science & Technology 10
Current Affairs 15
Total 100
UPSC Prelims 2019 GS Paper 1 Subject-Wise Analysis
Subject Number of questions
History 17
Economy 14
Polity 15
Environment & Ecology 11
Geography 14
Science & Technology 7
Current Affairs 22
Total 100


  1. General Studies Paper-II Syllabus

It comprises of 80 questions from the following topics carrying a maximum of 200 marks to be solved in 2 hours. This paper is a qualifying paper and the candidate has to score a minimum of 33% marks to qualify this paper. The scores of this paper are not added for screening purpose.

  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills.
  • Logical reasoning & analytical ability.
  • Decision making & problem solving.
  • General mental ability.
  • Basic numeracy (numbers & their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency, etc. – Class X level)

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UPSC IAS Main Exam Pattern & Syllabus

  • Civil Services Main Examination consists of written examination and interview (personality test).
  • Civil Services Main Examination consists of following papers divided into 2 categories – qualifying & papers to be counted for merit.
Qualifying Papers Marks
Paper-A One of the Indian Language to be selected by the candidate from the

Languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution

Paper-B English 300
Papers to be Counted for Merit
Paper-I Essay 250
Paper-II General Studies-I (Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the

World and Society)

Paper-III General Studies-II (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and

International relations)

Paper-IV General Studies-III (Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity,

Environment, Security and Disaster Management)

Paper-V General Studies-IV (Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude) 250
Paper-VI Optional Subject – Paper 1 250
Paper-VII Optional Subject – Paper 2 250
Sub Total (Written Test)  1750 1750
Personality Test  275 275
Grand Total  2025 2025

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Syllabus of UPSC Main Examination Papers

  1. Qualifying Papers on Indian Languages and English

The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows:

English Language:

(i) Comprehension of given passages.

(ii) Precis Writing.

(iii) Usage and Vocabulary.

(iv) Short Essays.

Indian Languages:

(i) Comprehension of given passages.

(ii) Precis Writing.

(iii) Usage and Vocabulary.

(iv) Short Essays.

(v) Translation from English to the Indian Language and vice-versa.

  1. Paper-I: Essay

Candidates may be required to write essays on multiple topics. They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely.

Credit will be given for effective and exact expression

  • PAPER-II (Marks: 250 | Duration: 3 hours)GENERAL STUDIES- I: Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society.

·Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from
ancient to modern times.
·Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the presentsignificant events, personalities, issues.
·The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from
different parts of the country.
·Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
·History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution,
world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political
philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.
·Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
·Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and
developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
·Effects of globalization on Indian society.
·Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
·Salient features of world’s physical geography.
·Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian
sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector
industries in various parts of the world (including India).
·Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone
etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features
(including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

General Studies‐ II: Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations.
·Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant
provisions and basic structure.
·Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to
the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges
·Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
·Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.
·Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers &
privileges and issues arising out of these.
·Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and
Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their
role in the Polity.
·Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
·Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of
various Constitutional Bodies.
·Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
·Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising
out of their design and implementation.
·Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various
groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
·Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the
protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
·Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health,
Education, Human Resources.
·Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
·Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governanceapplications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency &
accountability and institutional and other measures.
·Role of civil services in a democracy.
·India and its neighborhood- relations.
·Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
·Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests,
Indian diaspora.
·Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

General Studies‐III: Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment,
Security and Disaster Management
·Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth,
development and employment.
·Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
·Government Budgeting.
·Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation
and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and
related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
·Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public
Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and
food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
·Food processing and related industries in India- scope’ and significance, location, upstream
and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
·Land reforms in India.
·Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on
industrial growth.
·Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
·Investment models.
·Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
·Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and
developing new technology.
·Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology
and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
·Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
·Disaster and disaster management.
·Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
·Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
·Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social
networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering
and its prevention..
·Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with
·Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.


General Studies‐ IV: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude
·This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues
relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues
and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study
approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered :
·Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human
actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values –
lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of
family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
·Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour;
moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
·Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and
non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion
towards the weaker-sections.
·Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and
·Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
·Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical
concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and
conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance;
strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international
relations and funding; corporate governance.
·Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and
probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of
Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery,
Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
·Case Studies on above issues


Optional Subject Papers I & II

NOTE: Paper VI & VII are two papers of any one optional subject that the candidate may choose from amongst the List of Optional Subjects given by UPSC.

ƒ Agriculture
ƒ Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
ƒ Anthropology
ƒ Botany
ƒ Chemistry
ƒ Civil Engineering
ƒ Commerce and Accountancy
ƒ Economics
ƒ Electrical Engineering
ƒ Geography
ƒ Geology
ƒ History
ƒ Law
ƒ Management
ƒ Mathematics
ƒ Mechanical Engineering
ƒ Medical Science
ƒ Philosophy
ƒ Physics
ƒ Political Science and International Relations
ƒ Psychology
ƒ Public Administration
ƒ Sociology
ƒ Statistics
ƒ Zoology
ƒ Literature of any one of the following languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and English


Presently RICE IAS Academy offers four(4) Optional subjects to its students  for which the syllabus has been mentioned below-



1.      Sources
Archaeological sources :
Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments.
Literary sources:
Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional
languages, religious literature.
Foreign account: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2.      Pre‐history and Proto‐history :
Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture
(neolithic and chalcolithic).

3. Indus Valley Civilization :
Origin, date, extent, characteristics-decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4. Megalithic Cultures :
Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life,
Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5. Aryans and Vedic Period :
Expansions of Aryans in India :
Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the
later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of
Monarchy and Varna system.

6. Period of Mahajanapadas :
Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade
routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddism; Rise of
Magadha and Nandas.
Iranian and Mecedonian invasions and their impact.

7. Mauryan Empire :
Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept
of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration, Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External
contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.
Disintegration of the empire; sungas and Kanvas.

8. Post‐Mauryan Period (Indo‐Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas) :
Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions,
Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:
Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, Economy, land
grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture;
Art and architecture.

10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:
Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of
urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational
institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and

11. Regional States during Gupta Era:
The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds,
Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakit movement, Shankaracharya;
Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras,
Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chaluky as of
Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; Local Government; Growth of art
and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and
literature, economy and society.

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:
Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical
thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13. Early Medieval India, 750‐1200:
— Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the peninsula, origin and the
rise of Rajputs.
— The Cholas: administration, village economy and society “Indian Feudalism”.
— Agrarian economy and urban settlements.
— Trade and commerce.
— Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order.
— Condition of women.
— Indian science and technology.

14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750‐1200:
— Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and
— Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam
and its arrival in India, Sufism.
— Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly
developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India.
— Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting.

15. The Thirteenth Century:
— Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian
— Economic, Social and cultural consequences.
— Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans.
— Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.

16. The Fourteenth Century:
— “The Khalji Revolution”.
— Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measure.
— Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad
— Firuz Tugluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works,
decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account.

17.Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
— Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious
classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement.
— Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literaute in
the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting,
evolution of a composite culture.
— Economy: Agricultural Production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural
production, trade and commerce.

18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century‐Political Developments and Economy:
— Rise of Provincial Dynasties : Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat.
— Malwa, Bahmanids.
— The Vijayanagara Empire.
— Lodis.
— Mughal Empire, first phase : Babur, Humayun.
— The Sur Empire : Sher Shah’s administration.
— Portuguese colonial enterprise, Bhakti and Sufi Movements.

19. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century‐ Society and culture:
— Regional cultures specificities.
— Literary traditions.
— Provincial architectural.
— Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

20. Akbar:
— Conquests and consolidation of empire.
— Establishment of jagir and mansab systems.
— Rajput policy.
— Evolution of religious and social outlook. Theory of Sulhikul and religious policy.
— Court patronage of art and technology.

21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
— Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
— The Empire and the Zamindars.
— Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
— Nature of the Mughal State.
— Late Seventeenth Century crisis and the revolts.
— The Ahom kingdom.
— Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22. Economy and society, in the 16th and 17th Centuries:
— Population Agricultural and craft production.
— Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade
— Indian mercantile classes. Banking, insurance and credit systems.
— Conditions of peasants, Condition of Women.
— Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth.

23. Culture during Mughal Empire:
— Persian histories and other literature.
— Hindi and religious literatures.
— Mughal architecture.
— Mughal painting.
— Provincial architecture and painting.
— Classical music.
— Science and technology.

24. The Eighteenth Century:
— Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire.
— The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh.
— Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas.
— The Maratha fiscal and financial system.
— Emergence of Afghan power Battle of Panipat, 1761.
— State of, political, cultural and economic, on eve of the British conquest.


1. European Penetration into India:
The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French
East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal-The conflict
between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey;
Significance of Plassey.

2. British Expansion in India:
Bengal-Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three
Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

3. Early Structure of the British Raj:.
The Early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct contol; The Regulating Act (1773);
The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The Voice of free trade and the changing
character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement;
Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of
agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional
crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication
network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior;
European business enterprise and its limitations.

5. Social and Cultural Developments:
The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The
introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion;
The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of Science; Christian missionary activities
in India.

6. Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and Other Areas:
Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar;
The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India
including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance
to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism-the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7. Indian Response to British Rule:
Peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur
Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the
Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda
Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 —Origin, character, casuses of failure, the
consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the
peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of
the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress;
Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress
leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi
Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The
beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt
Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from
the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience
Movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The
Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements;
Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian
politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission;
the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission..

10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.

11. Other strands in the National Movement.
The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P. the Madras Presidency, Outside
The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress
Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the
politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.

13. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964);
The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality;
Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward Castes and Tribes in post-colonial electoral politics;
Dalit movements.

15. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural
reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial India; Progress of Science.

16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
(i) Major Ideas of Enlightenment : Kant, Rousseau.
(ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies.
(iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17. Origins of Modern Politics :
(i) European States System.
(ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.
(iii) French Revolution and Aftermath, 1789-1815.
(iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.
(v) British Democratic politics, 1815-1850 : Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

18. Industrialization :
(i) English Industrial Revolution : Causes and Impact on Society.
(ii) Industrialization in other countries : USA, Germany, Russia, Japan.
(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

19. Nation‐State System :
(i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century.
(ii) Nationalism : State-building in Germany and Italy.
(iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the World.

20. Imperialism and Colonialism :
(i) South and South-East Asia.
(ii) Latin America and South Africa.
(iii) Australia.
(iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

21. Revolution and Counter‐Revolution :
(i) 19th Century European revolutions.
(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921.
(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949.

22. World Wars :
(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars : Societal implications.
(ii) World War I : Causes and Consequences.
(iii) World War II : Causes and Consequences.

23. The World after World War II:
(i) Emergence of Two power blocs.
(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment.
(iii) UNO and the global disputes.

24 . Liberation from Colonial Rule :
(i) Latin America-Bolivar.
(ii) Arab World-Egypt.
(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy.
(iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam.

25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment :
(i) Factors constraining Development ; Latin America, Africa.
26. Unification of Europe :

(i) Post War Foundations ; NATO and European Community.
(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
(iii) European Union.

27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World :
(i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet Communism and Soviet Union, 1985-1991.
(ii) Political Changes in East Europe 1989-2001.
(iii) End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.




1. Sociology ‐ The Discipline:
(a) Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of Sociology.
(b) Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.

(c) Sociology and common sense.

2. Sociology as Science:
(a) Science, scientific method and critique.
(b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
(c) Positivism and its critique.
(d) Fact value and objectivity.
( e) Non-positivist methodologies.

3. Research Methods and Analysis:
(a) Qualitative and quantitative methods.
(b) Techniques of data collection.
(c ) Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.

4. Sociological Thinkers:
(a) Karl Marx – Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
(b) Emile Durkhteim – Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
(c) Max Weber – Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the
spirit of capitalism.
(d) Talcolt Parsons – Social system, pattern variables.
(e) Robert K. Merton – Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference
(f) Mead – Self and identity.

5. Stratification and Mobility :
(a) Concepts – equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation.
(b) Theories of social stratification – Structural func tionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian
(c) Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
(d) Social mobility – open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.

6. Works and Economic Life :
(a) Social organization of work in different types of society – slave society, feudal society,
industrial capitalist society.
(b) Formal and informal organization of work.
(c) Labour and society.

7. Politics and Society:
(a) Sociological theories of power.
(b) Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups and political parties.
(c) Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.

(d) Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.

8. Religion and Society :
(a) Sociological theories of religion.
(b) Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
(c) Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism,

9. Systems of Kinship:
(a) Family, household, marriage.
(b) Types and forms of family.
(c) Lineage and descent.
(d) Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.
(e) Contem porary trends.

10. Social Change in Modern Society :
(a) Sociological theories of social change.
(b) Development and dependency.
(c) Agents of social change.
(d) Education and social change.
(e) Science, technology and social change.



A.     Introducing Indian Society :
(i) Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society :
(a) Indology (G.S. Ghure).
(b) Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas).
(c) Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai).
(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :
(a) Social background of Indian nationalism.
(b) Modernization of Indian tradition.
(c) Protests and movements during the colonial period.
(d) Social reforms.

B. Social Structure:
(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:
(a) The idea of Indian village and village studies.
(b) Agrarian social structure—
evolution of land tenure system, land reforms

(ii) Caste System:
(a) Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S. Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont,
Andre Beteille.
(b) Features of caste system.
(c) Untouchability-forms and perspectives

(iii) Tribal Communities in India:
(a) Definitional problems.
(b) Geographical spread.
(c) Colonial policies and tribes.
(d) Issues of integration and autonomy.

(iv) Social Classes in India:
(a) Agrarian class structure.
(b) Industrial class structure.
(c) Middle classes in India.

(v) Systems of Kinship in India:
(a) Lineage and descent in India.
(b) Types of kinship systems.
(c) Family and marriage in India.
(d) Household dimensions of the family.
(e) Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division oflabour.

(vi) Religion and Society :
(a) Religious communities in India.
(b) Problems of religious minorities.

C. Social Changes in India:

(i) Visions of Social Change in India:
(a) Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
(b) Constitution, law and social change.
(c) Education and social change.

(ii) Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India:
(a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives,
poverty alleviation schemes.
(b) Green revolution and social change.
(c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture.
(d) Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration

(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:
(a) Evolution of modern industry in India.
(b) Growth of urban settlements in India.
(c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
(d) Informal sector, child labour.
(e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas.

(iv) Politics and Society :
(a) Nation, democracy and citizenship.
(b) Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite.
(c) Regionalism and decentralization of power.
(d) Secularization.

(v) Social Movements in Modern India :
(a) Peasants and farmers movements.
(b) Women’s movement.
(c) Backward classes & Dalit movements.
(d) Environmental movements.
(e) Ethnicity and Identity movements.

(vi) Population Dynamics :
(a) Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
(b) Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
(c) Population Policy and family planning.
(d) Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.

(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation :
(a) Crisis of development : displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
(b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
(c) Violence against women.
(d) Caste conflicts.
(e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
(f) Illiteracy and disparities in education.




Physical Geography :
1. Geomorphology : Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic
forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical
conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics;
Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of
geomorphic cycles and Land scape development; Denudation chronology; Channel
morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development; Applied Geomorphology;
Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.
2. Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth;
Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds;
Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types
and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and
Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change,
and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.
3. Oceanography : Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans;
Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves,
currents and tides; Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs
coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.
4. Biogeography : Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil
erosion, Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants
and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry,
agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
5. Environmental Geography : Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence
of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and
imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation,
management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental
policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and

Human Geography :

1. Perspectives in Human Geography : Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis;
Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis;
Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and
secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development indix.
2. Economic Geography : World economic development: measurement and problems; World
resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture:
typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutritions
problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location
patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.
3. Population and Settlement Geography : Growth and distribution of world population;
Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of
over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and
policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital.
Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements;

Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city and rank-size
rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe;
Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
4. Regional Planning : Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation;
Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Regional development strategies;
Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography : System analysis in Human geography;
Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of
Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location;
Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and
Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers


1. Physical Setting : Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; Structure and
relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian
monsoons and rainfall patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and
droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation, Soil types and their distributions.
2. Resources : Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine
resources, Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
3. Agriculture : Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors; land
holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity,
agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green
revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming;
Livestock resources and white revolution; Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture and
poultry; Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones; Agro-ecological regions.
4. Industry : Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel,
aluminium, fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and
ago-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector underkings;
Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special
Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism.
5. Transport, Communication and Trade : Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline
net works and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of
ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy;Export processing zones;
Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on
economy and society; Indian space programme.
6. Cultural Setting : Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic
diversities; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; Cultural
regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes:
sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration
(inter-regional, interaregional and international) and associated problems; Population
problems and policies; Health indicators.
7. Settlements : Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments;
Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Slums and asssociated problems; Town planning;
Problems of urbanisation and remedies.
8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year
Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised
planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward
area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; Regional
planning and development of island territories.
9. Political Aspects : Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation;
Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; International
boundary of India and related issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs;
Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
10. Contemporary Issues : Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes,
Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution;
Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and
environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental
degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and
industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable
growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and
Indian economy.
NOTE : Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent
to subjects covered by this paper




Political Theory and Indian Politics :

1. Political Theory: meaning and approaches.

2. Theories of state : Liberal, Neo-liberal, Marxist, Pluralist, post-colonial and Feminist.

3.      Justice : Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its
communitarian critiques.

4. Equality : Social, political and economic; relationship between equality and freedom;
Affirmative action.

5. Rights : Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; Concept of Human Rights.

6. Democracy : Classical and contemporary theories; different models of
democracy—representative, participatory and deliberative.

7. Concept of power : hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.

8. Political Ideologies : Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism.

9. Indian Political Thought: Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist Traditions; Sir Syed
Ahmed Khan, Sri Aurobindo, M. K. Gandhi, B. R. Ambedkar, M. N. Roy.

10. Western Political Thought : Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, John S. Mill, Marx,
Gramsci, Hannah Arendt.

Indian Government and Politics

1. Indian Nationalism:
(a) Political Strategies of India’s Freedom Struggle : Constitutionalism to mass Satyagraha,
Non-cooperation, Civil Disobedience; Militant and Revolutionary Movements, Peasant and
Workers Movements.
(b) Perspectives on Indian National Movement; Liberal, Socialist and Marxist; Radical
Humanist and Dalit.
2. Making of the Indian Constitution: Legacies of the British rule; different social and political
3. Salient Features of the Indian Constitution : The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties,
Directive Principles; Parliamentary System and Amendment Procedures; Judicial Review and
Basic Structure doctrine.
4. (a) Principal Organs of the Union Government : Envisaged role and actual working of the
Executive, Legislature and Supreme Court.
(b) Principal Organs of the State Government : Envisaged role and actual working of the
Executive, Legislature and High Courts.
5. Grassroots Democracy : Panchayati Raj and Municipal Government; Significance of 73rd and
74th Amendments; Grassroot movements.
6. Statutory Institutions/Commissions : Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General,
Finance Commission, Union Public Service Commission, National Commission for Scheduled
Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women;
National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Backward
Classes Commission.
7. Federalism : Constitutional provisions; changing nature of centre-state relations;
integrationist tendencies and regional aspirations; inter-state disputes.
8. Planning and Economic development : Nehruvian and Gandhian perspectives; Role of planning and public sector; Green Revolution, land reforms and agrarian relations;
liberalization and economic reforms.
9. Caste, Religion and Ethnicity in Indian Politics.
10. Party System : National and regional political parties, ideological and social bases of parties;
Patterns of coalition politics; Pressure groups, trends in electoral behaviour; changing
socio-economic profile of Legislators.
11. Social Movement : Civil liberties and human rights movements; women’s
movements; environmentalist movements.


Comparative Politics and International Relations

Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics :

1.      Comparative Politics : Nature and major approaches; Political economy and political sociology
perspectives; Limitations of the comparative method.
2. State in Comparative Perspective : Characteristics and changing nature of the State in
capitalist and socialist economies, and advanced industrial and developing societies.
3. Politics of Representation and Participation : Political parties, pressure groups and social
movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.
4. Globalisation : Responses from developed and developing societies.
5. Approaches to the Study of International Relations : Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalist
and Systems theory.
6. Key Concepts in International Relations : National interest, security and power; Balance of
power and deterrence; Transational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy
and globalisation.
7. Changing International Political Order :
(a) Rise of super powers; Strategic and ideological Bipolarity, arms race and cold war; Nuclear
(b) Non-aligned Movement : Aims and achievements.
(c) Collapse of the Soviet Union; Unipolarity and American hegemony; Relevance of
non-alignment in the contemporary world.
8. Evolution of the International Economic System : From Brettonwoods to WTO; Socialist
economies and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); Third World demand for
new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy.
9. United Nations : Envisaged role and actual record; Specialized UN agencies—aims and
functioning; need for UN reforms.
10. Regionalisation of World Politics : EU, ASEAN, APEC, AARC, NAFTA.
11. Contemporary Global Concerns : Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice
terrorism, nuclear proliferation.

India and the World
1. Indian Foreign Policy : Determinants of foreign policy; the institutions of policy-making;

Continuity and change.
2. India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement Different phases; Current role.
3. India and South Asia :
(a) Regional Co-operation : SAARC-past performance and future prospects.
(b) South Asia as a Free Trade Area.
(c) India’s “Look East” policy.
(d) Impediments to regional co-operation : River water disputes; illegal cross border
migration; Ethnic conflicts and insurgencies; Border disputes.
4. India and the Global South : Relations with Africa and Latin America; Leadership role in the
demand for NIEO and WTO negotiations.
5. India and the Global Centres of Power : USA, EU, Japan, China and Russia.
6. India and the UN System: Role in UN Peace-keeping; Demand for Permanent Seat in the
Security Council.
7. India and the Nuclear Question : Changing perceptions and policy.
8. Recent developments in Indian Foreign Policy : India’s position on the recent crises in
Afghanistan, Iraq and West Asia, growing relations with US and Isreal; Vision of a new world

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